Housing design 1, abstracts
ANNA BRAIDE (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden): Adaptable apartments: Design strategies for spatial adaptability
The ongoing demographic transformation results in comprehensive changes in population and household structures and implies constantly renewed needs and requests for different apartment space configurations. This challenges the field of design and calls for more adequate apartment solutions for a sustainable urban future. Still, current apartment design does not meet this challenge, but rather imposes a conventional attitude, and the housing market, dominated by a commercialized lifestyle focus appears to ignore the question of long-term resilience. This dictates conditions for residential qualities of life, in particular regarding issues of social sustainability, as households often lack the possibility to adapt their homes to their everyday needs and long-term life aspirations. The situation calls for an urgent future realization of a more resilient housing stock.
Results from my thesis show that adaptable apartments can meet some of these challenges. Adaptability increases the spatial capacity of apartments, enabling the households to stay in their dwelling during a longer time span. This contributes to increased dimensions of social sustainability, for the particular household as well as for the dwelling community. From a long-term perspective, adaptable apartments also contribute to a more sustainable dwelling stock.
This research project follows up the results from my thesis, addressing the issue of strategies for adaptable apartment space, with the aim to form a framework for the design of adaptable apartments. The research is funded by Sweden’s National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, with the commission to develop spatial strategies to support the design of adaptable apartment space.
The methodological approach for the research consists of a qualitative research using a mix of methods, with empirical studies of living situations, research by design in studio environment, and studies of theoretical works on adaptable apartment space as well as realized examples of adaptable multi-family residential projects, both in Sweden and abroad.
Keywords: dwelling, spatial adaptability, living process, adaptable apartments, dwelling design, residential resilience, social sustainability
SINI SAARIMAA, SATU HUUHKA (Tampere University, Finland): Apartments’ Potential for Dweller-driven Adaptation: Comparing Finnish Apartments from 1940–1990
The aim of giving dwellers better possibility to influence their dwellings is a subject of on-going debate. In particular, this poses a challenge for urban multi-story housing construction. To solve the challenge, residential buildings’ capacity to adapt has been extensively studied. Despite the long history of the research field, previous studies have not sufficiently focused on the question as to which qualities of long-lasting parts of apartments afford their ability to be changed by the users themselves. This article answers this question in a Finnish context.
Firstly, the article presents a model that examines aspects of apartment adaptation, as well as concepts which can be used to evaluate it. The understanding of control levels in environment forms foundations to the analysis. Considered aspects include dweller-driven adaptations related to the apartment’s territoriality, functionality, and quality of visual experience. Following the theory-based model, housing design is used as a systematic tool of the research.
To obtain material for the qualitative analysis, 20 apartment buildings were selected via a multistage process. The buildings selected from the City of Tampere represent the five decades of Finnish housing (1940–1990), portraying the significant shift in construction methods. The buildings are selected from areas that, based on City of Tampere’s inventories, represent their building time. The buildings and focus apartments were selected by random sampling approach, however, emphasizing all available building typologies and apartment placements.
With these rules, 35 apartments sized 50 – 90 square meters were digitally modeled and analyzed to simulate and visualize their affordances to adapt. This process produced over a thousand systematically created re-designs and analytical figures that were banked and summarized to support the transparency and reliability of the research. The findings both challenge and endorse earlier research results in a way that pushes the discourse forward. Study reveals rich and further developable solutions among existing housing stock that can be exploited to produce socially, environmentally and economically substantial innovations in multi-story housing development.
Keywords: housing, design, apartment building, adaptability, lifespan sustainability, morphological analysis
KATJA MAUNUNAHO, JYRKI TARPIO: Co-creating a Cookbook to Agile Housing
Cities as living environments and urban societies are facing rapid changes. Aging and international migration affect urban population structure. Developments in working life, economy and life styles generate new needs and practices of everyday life. Cities face these challenges uniquely, as some are prosperous and growing, whereas others deal with declining population.
There are, thus, multiple factors that seem to require a number of different housing solutions. However, the situation in Finnish housing market and production has been relatively stable, and the variation of urban housing solutions and concepts has remained quite small.
‘A Cookbook to Agile Housing’ is an internet-based application developed in a multidisciplinary research project Dwellers in Agile Cities during 2018–19. It was designed to be a database and a source of ideas of contemporary urban housing for housing designers, developers, city officials, and researchers, as well as citizens who are interested on the subject. As the name suggests, the application focuses on ‘agile’ housing solutions, i.e. on solutions which 1) are flexible in their spatial structure, and 2) involve dweller-oriented participatory or inclusive practices either in the design phase or in their potential use.
The ambitious idea of the cookbook is to test, communicate, and share information about new solutions, and, via doing this, have incremental impacts to the development of Finnish urban housing scene. In order to reach this target, the process of making the Cookbook included several co-creative processes with stakeholders and the multidisciplinary research group. This paper analyses in detail how co-creation functioned as an elementary part of making the cookbook application. We ask how different agile housing solutions were discussed during the process, and how the multidirectional communication between different parties was able to produce new shared understanding.
Keywords: co-creation, design research, housing solutions
ANNA HELAMAA (Arkkitehtitoimisto Ahonen & Kangasvieri, Finland): Yhteisöllisyys asuntosuunnittelua ohjaavana tavoitteena [In Finnish]
Yhteisöllisyys on viime vuosina noussut yhdeksi asuntosuunnittelun auki kirjoitetuksi tavoitteeksi niin kaupunkien asuntopoliittisissa ohjelmissa kuin asuinalueiden ja -rakennusten suunnittelukilpailuissa ja tontinluovutuksessa. Käsitteenä yhteisöllisyys on kuitenkin monimerkityksellinen ja arviointikriteerinä vaikea: missä määrin yhteisöllisyys on rakennetun ympäristön ominaisuus, keitä yhteisöllisyys palvelee ja miten se syntyy? Miten yhteisöllisyys on ja mitä ominaisuuksia suunnittelukilpailuissa arvioidaan?
Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selventää ja jäsentää asumisen yhteisöllisyydelle asetettuja tavoitteita. Artikkelin keskeinen kysymys on: millä eri tavoin yhteisöllisyys asumisessa käsitetään ja miten sitä pyritään edistämään? Tutkimuksen fenomenografinen viitekehys korostaa käsitysten merkitystä keskeisinä toimintaa suuntaavina tekijöinä: se, miten yhteisöllinen asuminen ymmärretään ohjaa sitä, miten ja millaisena sitä edistetään tai ei edistetä.
Aineistona on kolmen vuosina 2016-2017 Tampereella järjestetyn asumisen yhteisöllisyyttä tavoittelevan suunnittelukilpailun teksti- ja suunnitteluaineisto: kilpailuasiakirjat ja arvostelupöytäkirjat, suunnitelmat sekä kilpailijoiden laatimat yhteisöllisyyden toteutumista kuvaavat suunnitelmaselostukset. Aineiston fenomenografinen analyysi pyrkii tunnistamaan ja kategorisoimaan erilaisia tapoja, joilla asuntorakentamisen toimijat hahmottavat ja käsitteellistävät asumisen yhteisöllisyyden.
Alustavat havainnot viittaavat käsitysten eroavaisuuksiin esimerkiksi siinä, miten yhteisöllisyys ilmenee, keitä sen ajatellaan palvelevan ja millaisilla keinoilla tai prosesseilla yhteisöllisyyden ajatellaan rakentuvan.
Asiasanat: yhteisöllinen asuminen, asuntosuunnittelu, fenomenografia