DAY 1 / RESILIENCE 1
1 Identifying social impacts of crises to strengthen social resilience. Anahita Rashidfarokhi, Lassi Tähtinen, Saija Toivonen.
Our future is characterised by change and uncertainty caused by vast and interconnected crises forming a complex, tangled network. These complex and interconnected crises create not just direct but indirect social impacts, afcting societies and their individuals locally, nationally and even globally in various ways. This research aims to identify the potential social impacts (both positive and negative) of over 100 crises with 58 Futures Wheel workshops, including 188 experts from different fields of academia and practice. With the social impacts of a crisis, we refer to the lived human experience of crisis, i.e., how crises affect the tangible and intangible dimensions of wellbeing and social sustainability as central elements of resilience. Understanding how social impacts are affecting diverse individuals/communities and how they perceive and experience those is a first step towards achieving resilience at the social level. Therefore, the results of this study contribute to promoting the social resilience and crisis preparedness of societies.
2 Rewilding the built environment: a resilient response to different crises. Raúl Castano, Heini Järventausta, Jenni Poutanen, Sofie Pelsmakers
Society continues to face many crises, from climate change and air pollution to the pandemic, with associated consequences to human health and well-being. The built environment plays an important role in both mitigating and adapting to these impacts and in safe-guarding citizens. The presence and access to green spaces in the built environment plays a fundamental role in citizen’s ability to cope with adversity of different kinds and scale. This paper aims to 1.) synthesise knowledge about the diverse role that green space, and by extension the rewilding of our built environment, play as part of a resilient society and built environment and 2.) the specific conditions and characteristics of green spaces and the built environments to maximise its benefits, while avoiding unintended consequences. This is done through a literature review to present existing knowledge about the role of green space in a resilient built environment and society, followed by a critical case study review that identifies and illustrates the conditions and characteristics of green spaces as resilient solutions. Findings highlight a diversity of green spaces in type (e.g. ecological corridors), scale (e.g. community gardens, green roofs and walls), and location (e.g. parks, forests) and that they can support social inclusivity, community resilience and wellbeing. However, green spaces need to be designed in such a way that 1.) they are accessible and 2.) appealing for citizens to protect and appreciate them.
3 Enhancing Co-Benefits of Cooling Effect and Carbon Sequestration in Community through Optimized Greenery Configurations. Chang Xi, Raúl Cas- taño-Rosa, Sofie Pelsmakers, Shijie Cao.
Rapid urbanization has increased the vulnerability to climate change, with consequent damage to urban ecosystems. Increasing green infrastructure can regulate urban ecosystems effectively. Considering limited land resources, configuring green infrastructure to maximize environmental co-benefits is of great importance. However, the co-benefits of greeneries in community scale are commonly overlooked in previous studies. In this work, the impact of various greenery patterns (i.e., green roofs, street trees, shelterbelts) on co-benefits in an actual community was investigated. Numerical simulation was verified by experimental data. A comprehensive index (Bec) was established based on combination of cooling effect and carbon benefits. Firstly, green roofs, street trees and shelterbelts were simulated separately to quantify the benefits by Bec. Various greenery patterns were investigated to identify the optimal configuration. Compared to the community without greeneries, the average temperature of the community with optimally configured greeneries can be reduced by around 2 oC at pedestrian level in summer, which shows great cooling effects in the community. It is recommended that at least 3 rows of ST should be planted in the targeted community. The proper combination of ST+SH could increase the value of Bec by at least 30% compared to ST. The value of Bec for pattern of GR+ST+SH was 17% lower than that for ST+SH. This work provides the guidance of greenery configuration, which benefits a sustainable and low-carbon urban development.
4 Green Building Passive Design and Performance Optimization: Green Glass Space and Earth Air Tunnel Coupling System. Cunkuan Zhang, Chang Xi, Zhuan- gbo Feng, Shijie Cao.
In the context of global low carbon goals, it is important to balance comfort and energy in the building design phase. As the one of passive solutions, green glass space (GGS) is the transitional space consisting of glass facade, which shows the potential of balancing comfort and energy in winter. However, heat exchange through glass facade can lead to overheating in summer, further affecting the thermal comfort. It is urgent to improve thermal comfort in summer by energy-saving means. Therefore, a coupled system of green glass space and earth air tunnel system (GGS-EATs) was proposed in this work. The thermal environment was analyzed by numerical simulation. The application and the impacts of supply parameters (i.e., supply air temperature and velocity) on thermal comfort were investigated. Predicted mean vote (PMV) and percentage of dissatisfied (PD) were used to evaluate the thermal comfort. The results show that PMV and PD of GGS-EATs are within the comfortable range in summer. The optimal supply air temperature of GGS- EATs are 25-27℃. Saving energy consumption for cooling by about 60% in summer. The findings in this paper have some reference value in the future design of GGS for low carbon buildings.
DAY 1 / RESILIENCE 2
1.Art, reflection, and reconstruction. Anna Jensen
Public art manifests prevailing values in society. However, it does not only passively reflect these values, but it actively participates in maintaining, creating, and maybe even changing norms and expectations. Art influences how spaces and places are seen, experienced and being used, but often these spaces and places also define what kind of art is being presented in them. While prestige monuments and challenging contemporary art are in city centers, the art presented in suburbs and the natural environment is often loaded with expectations of utility. Past decade Porin kulttuurisäätö collective has challenged existing practices and structures and created site-specific and research-based art projects in public and semi-public places, aiming to increase understanding of these locations while studying different questions. Collective aims to use already existing resources and increase knowledge and understanding through cooperation and collaboration. Working with different cities has provided information about policies, strategies, and how cities often fail in implementing them. To increase sustainability, democracy, resilience, and diversity new policies but also new actions need to be taken. Art, without reducing it to merely utility, can be a good partner in finding new perspectives and creating better practices in our lived environments.
2 Campus Transformations and Student Preferences. Jenni Poutanen
This paper examines a university campus as a socio-technical system in transition. In recent years, many universities have adapted campus spaces to accommodate many societal, pedagogical, and technological changes. Instead of expansion of campuses, the focus has been on resilience of existing premises by shared use. This study investigates the effects of these changes on teaching and learning spaces, and whether the transformed spaces are represented in student preferences, thus implying the impact of the resilient solutions. The study is three-fold. First, it presents evaluation scales that were formulated to describe the whole campus provision in equal terms to better mirror the changes into the shared use of facilities. Secondly, based on the evaluation scales, the study introduces a new shared-based learning space typology. Thirdly, the typology is simply divided into categories of ‘typical’ and ‘novel’ that in turn are compared with the number of the student-preferences on spaces to reflect the transformation. The material consists of plan analysis and space allocation lists of a case university teaching and learning spaces, site visits, as well as a soft-GIS questionnaire on preferred learning spaces conducted on the case campus in 2018. The material is analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. This paper classifies the student-centred transformation of spaces. The results enable to evaluate the transformation of campus in general and the impact of resilient solutions by illuminating if the transformed spaces are represented in the preferred spaces.
3 Connection, comfort & control: older peoples’ perspectives on technology retrofits at home. Kate Simpson, Cian O’Donovan, Ralitsa Hiteva
Homes are retrofitted under the UK’s 2025 Digital Strategy and Climate Change Act (2008). Communication and energy technologies are being replaced to improve resilience of both older residents and physical infrastructure. Almost 11 million people are over 65, anticipated 13 million by 2032. Yet a healthy later life is becoming increasingly unlikely during interconnected housing, health and energy crises. Resident perspectives (N~30) on digital and energy retrofits were gathered, across three ‘independent’ UK housing schemes, 2022. Emerging results show perceptions of connection, comfort and control are affected. Connection between residents, with housing scheme managers, healthcare practitioners, friends and family. Comfort relating to safety, environment and health. Control surrounding choice and usability. Positive encounters include improved safety via video door entry and energy budgeting via smart meters. However, digital communication and new heating systems are imposed into homes, often without guidance on how to control the technologies; some rejected and replaced by residents. In-person communication is valued, but many fear it is reducing under ‘independent’ living. Recommendations for designers, managers and policy in digital and housing are: include residents in decision-making and allow resource for in-person connection, for resident resilience.
4 The connection between residents’ feeling of loneliness and their living environment. Sofie Pelsmakers, Terhi Lampio, Raul Castano, Katja Maununaho
Loneliness is considered to be a public health issue due to its connection with other various mental and physical illnesses. Loneliness is a subjective negative feeling when someone desires for more or better-quality social relations than they have in reality, also referred to as social and emotional loneliness respectively. While proportionally the population suffering from long-term loneliness is low (<10%), in absolute numbers this affects thousands of individuals in countries, and prevalence may have increased during the pandemic. This paper investigates the connection between residents’ loneliness and their living environments. This is firstly studied through an international literature review, followed by analysis of a large dataset of over 13000 Finnish survey respondents in 2016 and their living environment. To create more resilient living environments that help reduce risk of loneliness, understanding the conditions that support or hinder social relations is crucial. Findings highlight that over 1500 (11%) respondents indicated being lonely. In this study, at the individual level generally loneliness decreased with age, increased household income and education level, and with being female. Living alone and at dorms with poor indoor environmental quality (e.g., lack of daylight or plants) was also a risk factor. More people reported loneliness when living in an apartment block and in smaller units compared to other (larger) housing types with their own kitchen. Feelings of satisfaction with one’s home environment, and enjoyment of being at home, appeared to decrease the risk of loneliness. At the macro-level, residents living in more remote locations reported loneliness more than those living less remote. Literature findings suggest that neighbourhood level community and physical characteristics play an important role in mitigation loneliness risk, such as safety and security, feelings of belonging and being part of cohesive communities in attractive neighbourhoods with sufficient social amenities and greener
DAY 1 / RESILIENCE 3
1.Extending the Extension: A study into the Synthesis of Spatiality and Embodied Carbon in Future Alterations of Suburban Dublin. Ronan Conlon-Dooley
Semi-detached houses became a significant component of the housing stock in the suburbs of Dublin, Ireland during the 1960s. However, the new generation of occupants harbour a desire to modify these houses as a manifestation of their family’s identity, desires, or daily routine to make them their homes. This ‘projecting’ through alteration or extension often adheres to certain ‘rules of engagement’, outlined in an essay by Pike, Scanlon et al. (2011, Pg. 318), and likened to sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s ‘Habitus’ theory. However, as this essay is a decade old, and predates the urgency of the climate crisis in which we find ourselves, there is no reference in these rules to the carbon further embedded into these homes by their occupants. The carbon impact of these individual developments may seem minute relative to larger structures in cities around the world, but the multitude of these constructions generates a surprisingly comparable figure annually. This research paper investigates the alterations of a set of suburban houses in North County Dublin; the occupant’s stories, motives for modifying, and their satisfaction. In parallel, the embodied carbon associated with these alterations is documented using the Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE) database. The study looks at the balance of the domestic value that these new spaces have provided to the homeowners, in comparison to the corresponding carbon data, and the effect that architects understanding the anthropological impetus behind an urge to alter could have on the communication of a more appropriate, carbon conscious design proposals to homeowners.
2 Om att uppfinna hjulet på nytt: kvarteret som byggsten för staden. Jarre Parkatti
Staden har sent omsider fått upprättelse, i både ord och handling, efter det efterkrigstida förortstänkandet. Frågan är hur väldefinierade, arkitektoniskt-socialt mångfacetterade och kunskapsmässigt välgrundade syften som gömmer sig bakom dagens retoriska urbanitetsivrande. En intuitivt bestämd stadsmässighet garanterar inte en socialt fungerande, genuint urban stadsmiljö. Arkitektonisk urbanitet – åtskiljbar från den sociologiska – karakteriseras idealtypiskt av ett slutet gaturum som bildar scen för stadslivet (jfr ATUT 2021). Här fokuseras specifikt på spegelbilden av det urbana gaturummet, nämligen (det slutna) kvarteret, en central byggsten när det gäller hur gatan och staden fungerar och upplevs. Bristfälligheter i kvartersbygget får därför signifikanta följder. Brister kan uppstå om en beprövad och (nominellt) allmänt godtagen stadsbyggnadstradition de facto ifrågasätts och modifieras utifrån designprinciper som bryter med traditionen utan att stödas av vetenskapligt-rationella argument. – Metodologiskt avses urbanitetsprinciperna och kvartersegenskaperna belysas argumentationsanalytiskt utifrån litteraturen och definieras klart för att möjliggöra en analytiskt skarp kritik. Därvid anknyts till Björn Linns storgårdskvarter (1974) och nyare litteratur som specifikt diskuterar kvarteret samt till Jane Jacobs, Gehl och slutligen nyurbanisterna, vars Transect-princip möjliggör ett disciplinerat begreppsligt nedbrytande av den prototypiskt urbana kvartersstrukturen. I bakgrunden hägrar den teoretiskfilosofiska frågan om skillnaden mellan kunskap, professionella åskådningar och (ideell/intressefokuserad) politik inom stadsplaneringens pragmatiska, makt- och kunskapspräglade fält.
3 Creative reuse driving revitalization in a post-industrial town. Riikka Kyrö, Rebecka Lundgren
Repurposing former industrial sites to creative uses (so-called 'creative reuse') contributes to both cultural heritage and environmental sustainability, as it maintains the existing building stock. Creative reuse may also have positive impacts on the site surroundings. This study explores the prerequisites, functioning, and consequences of creative reuse in a small post-industrial town in Sweden. We engage in a qualitative case study method, with interviews, observation, photographs, and written documents as our data sources. The studied case is a former ceramics factory adapted for creative and collaborative use. We find that the case has a restorative effect on the local town and its inhabitants through tourism activities and street art. Furthermore, the case employs immigrants and other individuals with difficulty entering the job market, creating an inclusive community. Finally, the focal actors have a strong do-it-yourself attitude, and wish to nurture a sense of ownership of the space. The users are taught to do minor repair and renovations themselves, instead of procuring professional facility services. The findings can act as inspiration for public officials and real estate developers in post-industrial towns struggling with vacant spaces. Meanwhile, end-users from the creative industries could apply the learnings also in other types of collaborative spaces.
4 The fall of the self-evident wealth? – Households’ perceptions of the future development of real estate values in shrinking cities. Saija Toivonen
Real estate market environment is fundamentally tied up with several forces of change taking place in the society and in the surrounding market environment. The different forces shape our aims, values, preferences, and actions and therefore influence directly and indirectly the future development and our resiliency. Shrinkage of cities is one of the forces shaping the future development of many Finnish municipalities. In addition to negative environmental and social impacts, severe economic consequences are related to shrinkage via e.g. unsecure value development and unbalanced real estate market conditions. As a significant amount of both private and public wealth wealth is bound in real estates, the real estate market challenges can further accelerate the decline of the community. It is very typical that people’s lifetime wealth is invested in single-family houses. This study focuses on the future perceptions of households in shrinking cities and analyzes their views concerning the future value development of housing via a questionnaire. The results will increase the understanding of the future value expectations of households and the factors that they consider when justifying real estate investment decisions. This knowledge can assist when aiming towards resilient land use policies and real estate investment strategies in shrinking cities.
DAY 1 / Restore & repair
1. Making amends with the past – approaching cultural trauma through built heritage. Olga Juutistenaho
Architecture and built heritage are not detached from societal and political developments, but arenas in which conflicts manifest themselves. Architecture is a highly symbolic tool for identity building, a tool that can also be used for ideological and political purposes. Additionally, architecture contains layers of past and present trauma. How are these layers of history reflected spatially, visually, and mentally? This research assesses how architecture can serve as a reflection, a representation, or a commentary of past traumas. The main research question is how historical traumas are reflected in built heritage. Additionally, the importance of the socio-political context on these reflections, as well as the purpose of architecture as a narrative element in discussions on cultural trauma are considered. The theoretical framework of the research encompasses four main themes: trauma, memory, heritage, and identity. These are further linked to architecture through examples which represent varying approaches to these concepts. With several analysed examples, the research shows how spatial approaches and interventions can either neglect and hide or embrace and face past cultural traumas.
2 Revaluing Aalto’s Prewar Housing: Nature in the home, a Techno-poetic analysis. Troels Rugbjerg, Dean Hawkes, Olli-Paavo Koponen, Ilmari Lahdelma, Ranald Lawrence, Sofie Pelsmakers
Ideas of sustainable architecture gained popularity 50 years ago, affected by the energy crisis and ideals of preserving limited global resources. However unique sustainable approaches in the Nordic region may stem from architectural traditions and practices developed earlier. This paper investigates how sustainable design aspects were included into some of the modern Northern architecture (e.g. contextual and environmental considerations, local building methods), prior to the development of what we call sustainable architecture today. This paper focuses in on a housing case‐study by Aino and Alvar Aalto from the 1930’s, combining in‐situ studies (e.g. sensory explorations, indoor environmental quality measurements, interviews with residents); plan and drawing analysis, and theoretical positions, including positions on housing and relations to the environment and traditional methods of construction. Initial data analysis highlights that sustainability aspects in these housing projects include consideration for indoor environmental quality (e.g. passive stack ventilation systems, optimising orientation according to daily changes of sunlight and features of the landscape). The research highlights that despite changes in the life of residents in the past 90 years, these aspects still work today. This demonstrates aspects of architecture that we can learn from today for the design of sustainable housing in the future.
3 ‘Every Time I Describe a City, I am Saying Something About Venice’: Sustainable Adaptive Reuse in a Fragile City. Sally Stone, Margherita Vanore
Venice is one of the richest examples of the human’s collective creativity and as such is a globally recognised symbol of our common cultural inheritance. However, this triumphant city is suffering from the economically inspired epidemic of the tourist industry. The sustainable adaptive reuse of existing buildings and places is artful approach that recognises heritage, combined with a positive vision for the future that can make an environmentally sound contribution to the development and redevelopment of the existing built environment, and so provide a better, useful and more appropriate place for a population whose needs and attitudes are rapidly changing. This paper will discuss the paradoxical problem of the sustainable (re)development of the world’s most recognisable city, whose real and imagined existence belies a mutable urban fabric that is continually changing and needs to continue to do so to ensure that it is not scarified and forever preserved as an amusement park. The discussion will be organised through the three recognised attributes of sustainability (environmental, economic, and community) with the addition of a fourth category: inhabitation.
4 Use of Massive Earth Through History and Future of Finnish Buildings. Johanna Hyrkäs, Panu Savolainen
Earth has many beneficial characteristics as a construction material. It is low-carbon, non-toxic, biodegradable, hygroscopic, fire-resistant, low-cost and can often be obtained on building site. It supports self-build as well as potential industrial applications. Since earth has been used for construction for thousands of years, earth buildings are often assumed to be part of vernacular architecture. Whereas this is accurate in many cases, earth construction has along the history been promoted by several professionals, and the influences have often travelled far. Globally, one of the most used earth building techniques is rammed earth (Pisé in French). Rammed earth consists of massive, tightly packed composite of variety of mineral earthen materials. The technique travelled to Finland in late 1700’s and during the next century several dozens of buildings were built. This research sheds light on how international influences reached the furthest regions of Europe, how they were applied and what kinds of buildings were created. Through case studies it examines the technical aspects of massive earth construction as it was utilized in history and outlines possible future applications.
DAY 1 / Re-thinking design
1 Material Informed System: Dynamically Transformable Growing Structures and Architecture From “Endless” Measuring Tape. Faezeh Zadeghi, Günther H. Filz
Strip material, which is forming specific patterns, is widely used in architecture and engineering to generate highly efficient, but lightweight and therefore sustainable structures. We know such regular and irregular patterns like geodesics for example from grid shell applications. The patterns from initially planar elastic strips can generate planar and spatial configurations respectively the intended surface curvature by utilizing the strips ́ _weak axis. However, material, as we know it from measuring tapes, is usually not considered for construction. Such tapes have two predominant and unique features, firstly, they have high extension stability due to their concavity, and secondly, they are extremely thin and can be rolled to a small, compact dimension. So, measuring tape fabricators aim for both, the highest possible inflection points by the concavity of the tape, and the optimal running smoothness, which relies on the planarity when rolled. However, measuring tapes had been never considered as a material system neither in architecture nor structural applications. This paper explores possible constellation and structures from a single “endless” concave strip, a measuring tape, with the aim to satisfy both above-mentioned requirements. The design space is mainly dependent on the width of the used strip, its strong and weak, concave axes, the inflection point, which can not only change its position but also generate dynamic patterns, and the self-interconnection of the strip. Our research explores the material system of the tape in both, physical and digital experiments. The results of exploration were applied to generate the transformable lightweight, growing structures, adjusting to predefined or changing boundary conditions. Accordingly, the speculative design was developed by the use of generative design in three case studies in different scales: indoor scale, natural environment, and urban scale. Based on the selected, unusual material system, its physical properties, and the method of assembly, the study provides insights into the emergent architectural shape generation and opens a new chapter in the field of lightweight structures and architecture.
2 Horizontal expandability of Finnish multifamily buildings constructed between 1966 and 1983: Case Espoo. Jyrki Tarpio
In the growing Finnish cities such as Espoo, there is pressure to densify housing in many neighbourhood units. Usually, multifamily buildings with a concrete frame constitute the majority of housing in these neighbourhoods. 3–4-storey high buildings, in which flats are accessed through staircases unequipped with elevators are common. The frame depth in these buildings typically varies between 10.5 and 12.5 meters. This moderate depth combined with simple rectangular building geometry offers good possibilities to make various alterations to these buildings. In principle, there are five ways to expand these buildings horizontally. It is possible to make gable extensions, side wing extensions, side wings with access corridors, or middle wings. Additionally, frame depth can be increased. In most cases expansions require staircase conversions, which means that elevators can be added, and the accessibility of the dwellings improved. However, it is not only building geometry but also the way the buildings are located in blocks and plots, and the unbuilt area available which determine what kind of expansions are feasible. It is important to recognize what building geometries and urban situations offer the best possibilities. In this presentation, typical cases in five neighbourhood units in Espoo will be compared.
3 A House Moved (Husflyttningar): Wide Load (Bred Last). Tonia Carless, Robin Serjeant
This is an archival research on the practice of the wholesale moving of buildings in Umea, in Northern Sweden (Norrland). The focus for the research has been the space beneath the building, between land and occupation and it is understood to represent more than the increasing land values that have precipitated its move. It is a space through which to consider the material, social, political, economic and legal frameworks which construct ideas of Norrland. The space is a repository for representation, participatory and performative architectures. It is to relocate the cause and effects of economies of extraction through an architecture of de-growth. The visual spatial attempts to form connections across disparate fragments of built and lived space as an active re-insertion. In considering who owns Umea and the political narrative embedded in the physical space, there are multiple, simultaneous constructions of culture, of history, heritage and spatial occupation and these layers can be can be seen to be both transportable and re-loacable (Husflytningar). The disregard for things, surfaces, objects, built elements and domestic life become ways in which to read and make concrete the value construction of space in Norrland, understanding these becomes a process of re-forming territory.
DAY 1 / Re-thinking wood
1 Potentials and limitations of structural systems used in multi-storey timber apartment buildings in Finland. Teemu Hirvilammi, Antti Tuure, Hüseyin Emre Ilgın, Markku Karjalainen
As with many projects, at the early design stage of a timber apartment building, many issues need to be resolved at the same time and often within a tight schedule. Typically, the structural system is chosen at an early stage with limited knowledge of how it affects the design. This approach together with a lack of communication between related parties often leads to unfavorable and cost-intensive design choices. It is necessary to increase the awareness of how the features (e.g., constructional, environmental, and economical) of different structural systems affect residential design to improve the quality of the architecture considering the context. In the literature, there is no study examining the potentials and limitations of structural systems used in multi-story timber apartment buildings. By doing this, the interrelationship between architectural design, structural systems and construction methods will be studied. Data is collected by analyzing the architectural and structural plans of all Finnish multi-story timber apartment buildings built between 2018 and 2022 under the Finnish Land Use and Building Act which came into force on 1 January 2018. It is believed that this study will provide planning guidelines and common technical terminology for developers, architects, structural engineers, and other construction professionals.
2 The environmental performance of residential multi-storey timber buildings compared to planned car- bon budgets in Finland. Ninni Westerholm
Finland plans to be a society based on carbon-neutral circular economy in 2035. To achieve this goal, the country is starting to regulate construction via Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) requirements in the construction permit process by the year 2025. Finland is currently working on setting carbon budgets for certain building typologies. There is limited understanding to how these budgets will affect future construction, but they are expected to promote the use of wood because of the material’s carbon benefits. Even without obligatory LCA, the market share of wooden multi-storey residential buildings has been growing rapidly in the last decade. This paper compares the planned carbon budgets for multi-storey housing to the LCA results of six recently built multi-storey timber residential buildings. The aim is to depict how these timber buildings perform in relation to the budgets and to determine whether the selected projects would get a building permit when the legislation changes. The paper increases the awareness of how legislative changes driven by climate change mitigation affect construction in the near future.
3 Architectural Design from up-cycled concrete formwork wood: Perspectives on new physical and aesthetic qualities of waste wood, computer vision and algorithm-assisted façade design. Gabrielle Ni- colas, Günther H. Filz
In Finland and many other countries around the world, standard quality wood is used as a building material in countless ways, from permanent to temporary uses as auxiliary construction and formwork. Evidently, formwork wood is difficult to clean after its use, which is why our society and industry, usually consider formwork wood as contaminated, no longer usable and therefore waste, and usually send it to energy recovery. However, the concrete remaining on the formwork wood can be considered as a new surface treatment/coating that can give the material physical and aesthetic properties not previously considered. The goal of our research is to study the upcycling possibilities of reusing concrete formwork wood for new architectural applications with little or no further processing. To explore alternative ways to reuse formwork wood, we experimentally investigate the "new" material properties. Therefore, we (i) photographically scan each wood board to determine concrete coverage using image processing and computer vision, and (ii) conduct combined UV testing and water absorption testing to understand the performance of the new wood material and coating. We use the quantitative and qualitative results of the UV tests, weathering tests, and grade of surface coating as input data to create algorithm-assisted, customized architectural designs. Combined with real weather and climate data, we present first showcases of façade designs in two locations - Brussels and Helsinki.
4 Teaching with wood. Reconciling future architects with the forest. Francesco Camilli
The potential of timber to be a strategic material in the pursuit of sustainability in architecture has been demonstrated in recent times by academic research (Ibañez, Hutton, and Moe 2019) and practical experimentation (Menges, Schwinn, and Krieg 2016). These projects have also shown how an effective use of timber in architecture should be linked to a change of approach towards a material that is not seen as a passive and exploitable resource but as a living entity whose complex ecology must be integrated in the design. Amending for the way in which we approach timber can help to repair manmade damage to the environment by establishing a use of wood that strengthens rather than weakens its ecology. Architectural teaching can be crucial for this goal: Design-Build and Live Project initiatives, in which students can confront with timber in different stages of design, can give future architects an idea of the extension of the ecology of this material and the environmental implications of its use in the built environment. This paper will provide an intellectual framework for a renovated approach to working with timber in architectural education that can be an effective way of diffusing a higher environmental and ecological conscience in future practitioners.
DAY 2 / Revalue & Reform 1
1 Unravelling the public procurement networks of architectural services in Finland as pathways of transformative design innovations. Vincent Kuo, Günther H. Filz
Progressive transformation of the built environment is ultimately realized by industry practitioners and designers (suppliers), coupled with incentives/targets set by the clients and contracting authorities (buyers). Thus, insights on real-world buyer-supplier networks can inform how progressive targets and innovative designs can be incentivized and proliferated through the ecosystem, as indicators of the responsiveness and resilience of the whole sector. However, deep insights on buyer-supplier networks of architectural services are currently not available for assessing the pathways of transformative knowledge. The aim of our research is to collect, clean and analyze open data about Finnish public procurements of architectural and related services, for insights on the landscapes of buyers and suppliers, as key players for transformation in the building sector. We map the buyer-supplier ecosystem country-wide, across numerous projects over multiple years, using data-mining, computational network modelling and graphing algorithms. In this way, communities and densities of buyers and suppliers can be detected and characterized based on their connectedness and influence. We create data visualizations aiding intuitive understanding of how transformative knowledge and innovations could spread through the network, and recommend interventions for systemic improvements with reference to the sector-wide promotion of innovative designs.
2 Broken Telephones. The Assemblage of Mediating Actors in the Case of Low2No. Tommy Lindgren
The need for radical transformation of the value systems related to the production and reproduction of our built environment(s) has been identified, and in many cases, goals and guidelines for achieving change have been articulated. However, reaching the goals may often prove elusive, and a catholic understanding of the network of actors and their relations in the fields of planning, designing, building and inhabiting is crucial for effecting change. This paper presents an Actor-network theory based reading of the ambitious Low2No project, from conception in 2008 to realization in 2018 as the Airut-block in Jätkäsaari, Helsinki. The reading follows the trajectories of the stated goals and their different manifestations, translations and transformations in the network of technologies, human and non-human mediators. The heterogeneous set of documents, written and visual, connected to the project make up the collection of material used in drawing this narrative. Conclusions focus on describing the mediating role(s) of tools of design and realization, and their effects on the stated goals. The possibilities and opportunities of these tools for actualizing meaningful change in the production of the built environment is discussed.
3 Representation and Repetition: Is a new planning paradigm reducing the complexity and depoliticising public spaces in Christiania, Copenhagen? Jens Brandt
In the field of architecture and urbanism we tend to see representations such as plans and models as neutral tools. The paper will analyse the problem of reduction in representation both politically but also in language and the plans and models of architects and planners. It will use Lefebvre’s notion of the blind field - how “the eyes, concepts and language are shaped by the (industrial) past and therefore reductive to an emerging reality”. Along with Lefebvre, I will argue that the reduction in representation (the blind field) restrain the production of difference and instead produce repetition. The paper will contextualise the central role Lefebvre gave the body for production of difference in theory such as Haraway's “Situated Knowledge” and use this to argue for how nonverbal qualities of the urban and a “peripheral perception” of the body allows us to sense the political or “spaces of possibilities”, and produce difference. Christiania in Copenhagen will be used as a case to explore how the present legalisation process and the need for a formal project plan to gain planning permission (as in the rest of Denmark) affects the building culture so essential for Christiania.
4 Spatializing the Boundaries of extraction. An interpretative cartography of mining practices in Sweden. Alejandro Haiek, Raquel Colacios, Pimentel Luis.
Resource extraction in Sweden is an active practice that historically has had a positive economic impact, increasing the well-being and living standards. But those practices have a clear negative effect on the environment, putting water supply at risk and deteriorating the quality of the air, affecting the cultural heritage and the lives of indigenous Sami people. Understanding the multiple geographies of the resource extractions practices, meaning: the spatial delimitation of it but also the socio-spatial effects and impacts are of great importance to ensure an inclusive, multiscale and holistic restoring process. This research presents an exploration of interpretative mapping of mining extraction practices in Sweden. By spatializing the boundaries of action and the physical characteristics of the extraction process, the multiple layers of the landscape: human and non-human, we can envision a restorative strategy that includes all the dimensions of the deterioration. The results show that by spatializing and interconnecting the multiple variables that intervene in the active modification of the landscape mining activities and its agents of disturbance, it’s possible to engage in innovative inclusive restoration processes for the affected landscape, the environment, and its cultural and social patrimony.
DAY 2 / Revalue & Reform 2
1 Material flows from buildings: A comparison of patterns in two Finnish cities. Mario Kolkwitz, Satu Huuhka, Elina Luotonen
In the circular economy, building stocks are considered urban mines whose extraction for secondary resources can replace that of virgin resources. The purpose of the current study is to compare the inflows and outflows of buildings (i.e. new constructions and demolitions) and the stocks of buildings in two Finnish cities, Vantaa and Tampere. This is a form of material flow analysis. Tampere and Vantaa are the third and fourth largest cities in Finland, with circa 230 000 inhabitants each. Despite their similar sizes, they are located in differing contexts: Tampere is the core city of its region, whereas Vantaa is one of the four cities of the capital region where Helsinki is the center. This makes it interesting to compare their building stock dynamics. The results show several similarities but also some essential dissimilarities in the building stock, new construction, demolition and replacement patterns of the two cities.
2 Design through availability – Architectural design process reform for reuse. Havu Järvelä
Built environment climate goals cannot be achieved only by replacing old buildings with new ones as manufacturing phase accounts for half of building whole life carbon emissions. The demolished stock should be considered as a vital resource bank to be utilized in the upkeep, restoration and refit of the present building stock. Current design processes are not facilitating building part reuse or incentivize retaining the parts' value after demolition. Critical challenge in consolidating the reuse in design work is the need to reorganize the building design process and scarcity of information supporting the required system level change. This paper explores design process reorganization through case-studies, reports and academic publications. Research questions are (1) How should the situational information on availability of reusable parts be brought to be a relevant part of the design process? (2) How building part reuse should be anticipated in organization and scheduling of the design process? Research scope is limited to the frame and outer shell structures due to their structural significance and potential in reducing the whole life carbon emissions. The paper seeks to anticipate and facilitate the proliferation of reuse design in Finnish construction scene before the change of the Construction Products Regulation.
3 Reconfigured: A circular approach to construction pedagogy. Matan Mayer
Material recovery in the built environment is typically examined and practiced as a technical endeavor, which involves multiple scientific domains. This paper explores how material recovery and reutilization could also be used to build creative problem-solving skills among students in architecture education, particularly in construction curricula. Within this context, the paper describes and analyzes findings from a five-year pilot course offered at the undergraduate level of a professional architecture program. The course substitutes a foundational construction class, which in many institutions focuses on a linear survey of widely practiced construction methods and their corresponding building details. Instead of employing that classical approach, the course aims to convey construction principles through the act of inventorying and reusing components from a given building stock. It does so through three sequential phases: an analytical phase, where students conduct an in-depth study of a case in contemporary construction at multiple scales and media, including physical models; an inventorying phase, where students are required to deconstruct their case into discrete elements and characterize their physical properties; and a redeployment phase, where students are requested to use their inventoried material stock to reconstruct their case in a considerably different configuration. This act forces the students to use components that have been designed to carry loads and connect to other components in a specific direction and manner, in an entirely different set of structural and compositional constraints. As part of this process, the students are also asked to design new connection details for the reused components while considering the new context of each component. The paper presents a comparative study of the environmental implications of this approach, and concludes with a discussion regarding current limitations and future investigation trajectories.
4 Making the case for repair and re-use in architectural education. Ranald Lawrence, Emma Curtin
65-70% of the carbon footprint of new buildings comes from the embodied energy of construction, maintenance and demolition (RICS 2017). Simultaneously, ‘deep’ refurbishment of existing buildings typically saves 50% of the embodied carbon of demolition and replacement (Chesire 2016). In this context, with the decarbonisation of the grid rapidly rebalancing evaluation of embodied/operational energy, architects and clients need to ‘think twice’ before designing or commissioning new buildings. The rate of consumption of virgin materials and the energy used in the construction of new buildings is not viable if we are to limit climate change to 1.5 degrees in order to maintain a liveable planet. However, refurbishment projects have typically been overlooked in architectural education. Until recently, it was widely considered that these kinds of projects did not offer sufficient complexity to meet professional accreditation criteria. This paper will report on re-use projects undertaken by students at Liverpool School of Architecture, examining two mid-20th C buildings on the university campus. The paper will discuss pedagogical strategies to engage students in value judgments regarding the social and cultural value of existing buildings, their embodied carbon content, and the development and justification of strategies for intervention, repair and re-use.
DAY 2 / Reflect & Re-educate 1
1. Designing for and with democracy: educating the transformative practitioner. Essi Nisonen, Sofie Pelsmakers, Jenni Poutanen
Currently, sustainability is still often treated as a distinct topic separate from the architectural design process or even its desired outcome. To ensure that architects are educated to be flexible and holistic thinkers for sustainability rather than linear, spatial problem solvers, architecture education has the responsibility to critically evaluate and radically rethink its current unsustainable practices, pedagogies, and values. To design for sustainability and resilience, empathy, critical thinking and a sense of broader societal responsibility need to be the starting points of the processes, values and roles of architects. Based on findings from an interdisciplinary literature review, combining research from the fields of design, management, systems thinking and formal- and non-formal learning, the concept of “designing for and with democracy” as an approach for rethinking architecture education, is suggested. This approach can be used as a tool for re-educating and engaging students, teachers and practitioners alike in active promotion of sustainability both in their work and communities. The concept of “designing for and with democracy” introduces learning cultures and praxis for unlearning the outdated, transmissive and hierarchical learning cultures in architecture education. It provides insights for revaluing the starting points of how and what we design, and insights for reflecting on & reforming the purpose and goals of architecture education.
2 Teaching Urban Activism – A retrospective view through the lens of critical-democratic engagement. Elina Alatalo, Veera Turku, Dalia Milián Bernal, Mikko Kyrönviita
As noted in the latest IPCC reports, human activity and our fraught relationship with the planet are the root causes of the climate emergency. These reports were not shy in elucidating the role of the built environment in exacerbating this emergency, nor in revealing the importance of politicizing climate change, building different levels of democracy, and engaging different (political) actors to bring about “transformative pathways” to mitigate its effects. Within this context, the academic community must reflect on what and how to teach, learn, and research and ponder on what is the purpose of higher education, its broader societal (and political) role, and what kinds of partnerships it should construct. In this paper, we discuss these issues and, building on theories of critical-democratic engagement and activist pedagogies, we reflect on the interdisciplinary course of Urban Activism we taught from March to May 2021 at Tampere University. The course followed five cases unfolding in the city of Tampere and aimed 1) to build an understanding of each case through activists’ narratives and students’ fieldwork and 2) to stimulate critical analysis of the sustainable transformation of urban space as well as the political agency and creativity that can drive it. In the process, however, the course became a space where students and teachers alike became engaged in active citizenship, constructing partnerships with urban activists with whom we continue to build the potential to mobilize change and construct more sustainable and democratic urban environments.
3 Rethinking Education: A Framework for Contextualizing Environmental Education Practice in Cities. Shammi Akter Keya, Eeva Aarrevaara
Education systems worldwide are going through continuous changes due to the evolution of educational philosophies. Although the traditional idea inclines toward indoor-based learning, there is an emerging emphasis on outdoor education for nature-connectedness and environmental awareness. Additionally, the multiple health benefits of green infrastructures, such as reduced Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) amongst adolescents, and improved urban micro-climate resulting in better building-indoor environment, have put more stress on green area management in urban areas. The scope of outdoor Environmental Education (EE) can vary significantly in different cities. While many cities (e.g., Lahti city, Finland) have adopted outdoor environmental education to improve nature connectedness and sustainable behavior amongst students and citizens, the densely built cities are lagging in pedagogical rethinking and incorporating local green spaces purposefully. Besides, the scope for introducing EE practices in different cities with varying contexts needs further research. In this study, Lahti city has been studied as an exemplar of how urban schools can act as nodal points to utilize environmental education practices to assess and protect local green areas with the help of the local community, especially the children. The study develops a model that allows comparative quantitative analysis of natural and built environments for establishing outdoor-based climate resilience education in cities. The model is tested in case study city Dhaka, Bangladesh to check the applicability of the SCI model in contrasting cities.
4 Drawing the climate emergency – making the invisible visible, a pedagogical approach. Elizabeth Donovan, Helle Blom
Drawing is still one of the most powerful communication tools; it speaks a language that can be understood regardless of age, gender, and education. It is a known pedagogical tool in the design studio, and as architects, we use drawings to understand, analyse, create and communicate. Plans, sections and elevations are all conventional modes of communication as is the influx of realistic renders, usually showing picturesque scenarios of sunshine and children playing. Yet, despite the changing profession and climate, we often still draw the same. Raising questions such as, how do we communicate good air quality or thermal comfort? How do we illustrate diversity and inclusivity? Does a realistic grey day have the same potential? How do we convey how a building might age, how it might transform, or its future potential? Thus, this paper aims to explore how drawing can be used as a pedagogical tool for exploring the topic of climate change — using experiences from past and ongoing teaching to create a case for exploring through drawing. Going beyond learning how to draw but actually how it can be used as a tool for reflection, learning to know what to draw and daring to draw. Flipping what is often seen as a problem into a creative endeavour, reflecting on its potential in the unpredictable future faced by the architectural profession.
day 2 / Reflect &
1. Encountering the gaze of a visitor- Discussion between two researchers from different disciplines. Helena Teräväinen, Funmi Akindejoye
Finland is one of the most sustainable countries in United Nations’ SDG ranking list and repeatedly also the most happiest country. Environmental health risks are prevented in the legislation and regulations, and professional planners should follow the guidelines. More complexed views open in the discussion with a visiting researcher, who had earlier a case study in Global South with findings for improving mental health: more awareness, a safe and aesthetic environment, access to public spaces, reliable transportation, affordable housing and wetland protection. The researcher has done a case study in a small Finnish town, doing observations and interviewing citizens. At the first glance the town seems to be safe and the environment is clean, but the interviews revealed interesting points demanding us to reflect and amend the customary thinking. For example affordable housing is one-family houses with large sites – which increases the sprawl, and people have to drive private cars, because the public transport is not sufficient. Many public services are already today situated in private commercial buildings outside the center. But what does mental health or happiness have to do with urban planning? The strategy of the town is “The recipe of the happiness, growing ¬ vital and well-being”. How is this connected with the local planning solutions, is the main target to be illuminated in reflecting discussions between two researchers.
2 Transforming Architectural Design Pedagogy. A Reflection on an Experimental Master’s Level Course. Rosana Rubio Hernández, Fernando Nieto Fernandez, Guiomar Martín Domínguez, Sergio Martín Blas, Mara Sánchez Llorens and Francisco Javier Maroto Ramos
This paper addresses a restorative practice with great potential in the context of architectural education from the perspective of cultural sustainability: the concept of transformation. This idea was used as the driver of an architectural course held as a collaboration between two European universities during the spring semester of 2022. Understood as the action of ‘transmuting something into something else’, transformation implies acknowledging and reinterpreting pre-existences, and therefore challenging the creation ex novo, which has been the leading motto in design studios in the last decades. The concept was explored from the perspective of a constructivist pedagogical model at three complementary levels: 1) Transformation of practice, through design-led strategies; 2) Transformation of mindsets, through teaching and learning processes; 3) Transformation of the post-pandemic design studio. This paper evaluates the course’s outcomes to answer the following questions: I) was the concept of transformation adequately implemented as a research-through-design method and as a pedagogical tool to trigger change of both students’ and teachers’ mindsets?; II) was the design studio transformed to teach appropriately in hybrid mode? For this purpose, we used a mixed-method approach, which included a literature review on the concept of transformation and a post-course survey. Beyond identifying specific achievements and challenges that may serve as a base to improve the course in the future, the research ultimately reflects upon the values and possibilities introduced by the concept of transformation within architectural design pedagogy.
3 How the perception of Sustainability in Academia has changed since Covid19. An early survey. Ugo Maria Coraglia, Caterina Morganti, Marco Alvise Bra- gadin.
The construction sector is among the main causes of the climate crisis in Europe, contributing with 36% of CO2 emitted annually due to 40% of annual energy consumption . Since 1987, the year in which the Brundtland Report  was drawn up, the concept of Sustainability has been introduced in both the architectural and engineering fields. It is a vast concept that has been tried to simplify by dividing it into different types (environmental, social, economic). The final goal of each of these subdivisions is to try to reduce the impact generated by the construction sector. The UNI standards have also tried to support professionals by dictating the rules of this new way of perceiving architecture. [3, 4] Unfortunately, two years ago the world was plagued by an unexpected event, a global pandemic that has disrupted and transformed the way people behave and perceive the world.  This early survey aims to provide, through the analysis of a paper's selection, an overview of how the sustainability concept perception has changed in academia since the advent of Covid19.
4 Research Education for Architecture Students: Case-Study of the Academic Reading Circle Method. Anni Vartola.
This paper describes Tyson Seburn’s (2016) Academic Reading Circle (ARC) group work model applied on an introductory research course taught online at Aalto University Department of Architecture in 2021–22. The model was implemented to respond to an increasing demand for academic literacy among professionals and to support the idea of an architect-researcher identity with a versatile knowledge of architectural research and its methodological opportunities. The experiment indicates that the rigorously structured ARC model provides an efficient framework for analytical and discursive reading and is very adaptable to online education on the Master's level. According to both the teacher's experience and the students' feedback, the model supported student collaboration, increased students' positive attitudes towards architectural research, and enhanced peer-to-peer learning, but also entailed some risk elements especially if the course programme is complex or the group size is large. The paper describes the pedagogical setup, explains the implementation and adaptation of the ARC model, and discusses some ideas for further development.
Adaptive reuse and sharing spaces: A lifecycle perspective of embodied carbon and innovative sustainable construction. Rebecka Lundgren
The real estate and construction sector is a major contributor to climate change, which presents opportunities for significant impact from the implementation of sustainable measures. Circular economy is a sustainability concept which has increased in popularity both in academia and in industry in the last decade. To date the focus in the field of circular economy in the built environment has been on long loops, such as recycling and new construction, and the social sustainability perspective is mostly lacking. Short loops involve reducing demand, of which access-over-ownership models, such as sharing spaces, is one approach. Medium loops involve the restoration, repair and adaptive reuse of existing buildings, which is considered preferable to new construction due to the embodied carbon and the pertaining environmental impact. The aim of the study is to focus on short and medium loops within the circular economy by investigating how adaptive reuse can be optimized in terms of cost, environmental, and social impact. The study employs a case study method, simulating the cost, environmental, and social impact through lifecycle analysis, for different adaptability cycles for an adaptive reuse case. The case has been selected due to the focus on different sharing solutions and reusing materials. In order to capture the potential for access-over-ownership models to decrease environmental impacts they will be presented both as CO2e/sqm and CO2e/person. The findings are useful to building owners, developers and governing bodies interested in steering CE initiatives in the built environment towards those which have the highest environmental and social impact.
Creating a socially valuable environment for Tampere citizens by managing the activities in the spaces of Tampere University, Hervanta campus. Elena Sitrakova, Sila Kartal
After the pandemic, people tend to work or study remotely than using university campuses. Moreover, campuses are mainly used by the students and staff during the daytime and on weekdays during education periods, but they are not welcoming citizens daily. It creates a controversial case where we have big spaces that consume a certain amount of energy for a limited number of users. The university campuses' current management system does not work that effectively. We aim to revalue those wide spaces and as an example we would like to explore one of the buildings and find the areas that are not used that often anymore to create a socially valuable environment for a wider user profile from reformist management of current spaces. Also we consider to re-imagine the potential of the urban environment of the area around the building. Our research questions: How do we create a socially valuable environment for Tampere citizens by managing the activities on the spaces of the Tampere University campus? How can it contribute to social and environmental sustainability with minimal spatial changes? We will use research by design methodology. We will conduct a survey or interview with the citizens to detect their demands from a city campus and try to implement their demands by revaluing the existing spaces of Tampere University with a new space and time management scheme.
Approaching change in rural urban metabolism: A young plan- ner’s approach for ecological reconstruction in finnish rural regions. Emel Tuupainen.
The ecological reconstruction (ER) vision by BIOS research unit aims to change the societal metabolism of Finland. In the core of the vision is the holistic view of economy which contradicts the narrow views of mandatory growth and market economy. In urban planning growth oriented approaches are a standard and growth is seen as mandatory even in non-growing areas. In the future demand on local production will increase because of decreased security of food and commodity production. This requires a change in rural-urban metabolism which could increase the political importance of rural areas. Two questions arise: Which are the possible contradictions and possibilities between the ER vision and the typology of rural villages in Finland? How should these contradictions be approached in planning while promoting systemic change? Shrinking rural neighborhoods already face problems and have a conflict with centralization and urban growth oriented policies, which creates potential for change. Contradictions arise from the intertwined dependence on non ecological production. I propose co-evolutionary and polyrational approaches because of uncertain and fragile context. However regional strategies are in contradiction with the ER vision making fast institutional change improbable. I propose a parallel urban planning institution to accelerate the speed of change.
Possibilities of Sustainable PDPC Housing using Prefabricated Massive Wood Construction. Mari-Sohvi Miettinen, Ari Hynynen, Virpi Palomäki
The article studies the possibilities of the use of massive wood prefabricated construction when pursuing sustainable housing solutions after a disaster or conflict. Prefabricated housing on PDPC areas is often criticised, but use of wood might answer some of the issues addressed in readymade solutions.
The article is based on findings made in development projects at [anonym.] University. In addition to literature review, the research group developed a design concept for a wooden single family housing unit. It worked as a boundary object that summed up the collected knowledge and allowed multi-disciplinary co-operation. It also worked as a base for carbon calculations and comparison to a common metal container shelter.
Our key finding is, that in addition to wood’s low carbon footprint, wooden construction might also benefit the social and economic sustainability of PDPC housing. Wood’s adaptability offers possibilities for either reuse or transformations by the user, which is essential regarding the uncertain time span of PDPC housing. Health effects of wooden surfaces can also bring comfort to people in insecure circumstances.
Climate Change Resilience of the Higher Education Sector: A Systematic Review. Eleni Davidson, Yair Schwartz, Dejan Mumovic, Joe Williams
A continued upward trend in global greenhouse gas emissions is estimated to see average temperatures rise by 2.7°C before 2100. This warming effect presents risks to global infrastructure and built assets that should be identified to minimise negative consequences on inhabitants. For higher education (HE) estates, a key challenge is to maintain high indoor environmental quality standards whilst mitigating increased cooling loads under future climates. Findings from this systematic review suggest that existing passive cooling mechanisms may be insufficient to tolerate predicted increases in summertime temperatures, even in cooler UK climates. Across typologies, peak electricity demand for mechanically cooled HE buildings was estimated to increase the most for halls of residences (4-27%) and the least for laboratory buildings (0-5%) by 2080. Under a high emission scenario, the increase in total annual energy consumption by 2050 varies widely across studies (+5-33%), although almost all cases predict a greater increase in cooling energy consumption than decrease in heating energy consumption. Probabilistic climate projections are the predominant source of uncertainty for predictions of energy demand, with the difference between low and high emission scenarios contributing to 34-44% of variability in predicted annual cooling energy consumption in 2050. Further research is warranted to identify the most likely indicators of future building performance across a range of HE building typologies. This paper provides recommendations on expanding the evidence basis through development of standardised climate change impact assessments.
100 years of Tabula Rasa in Architecture. Henri Käpynen
This research examines Tabula Rasa as a design strategy in Architecture and Urban Planning. By conducting carefully selected case studies and thorough literary review the research focuses on three architects whom have proposed tabula rasa as a design strategy: Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe and Rem Koolhaas. Tabula rasa was famously proposed by Le Corbusier in his Plan Voisin for Paris in 1925. The golden age of tabula rasa strategy was the modern period 1920-1970s. This research aims to clarify the now missing historical narrative of tabula rasa as design strategy from 1920s all the way to today. To put this research into perspective; 68% of the world’s population is projected to live in urban areas by 2050. It is also estimated that the human created ‘anthropogenic mass’, which includes our buildings and cities, surpassed all living biomass on Earth somewhere around the year 2020 – at the current pace this anthropogenic mass will double every 20 years. So in the future, it’s even more clear that everything we produce, we can’t keep. Tabula rasa approach has a stigma of being a design strategy of the past, but in the light of numbers – it's not so clear at all.
Building Management Systems: their role in energy and indoor climate resilience. Raúl Castaño, Junqi Wang, Shi- jie Cao, Sofie Pelsmakers
In Europe, the building sector contributes to around 40% of the total carbon emissions, and the operation of buildings, and especially residential buildings, is a large contributor. Hence tackling the operation and maintenance of residential buildings is an effective way to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions. While the operation and maintenance phases of non-residential buildings typically rely on Facilities Management (FM) personnel and Building Management Systems (BMS), FM personnel and BMS are always absent in a standard housing; instead, residents manage their own home individually. Through a scoping literature review, this paper investigates the potential of BMS in promoting energy efficiency, indoor climate comfort and long-term resilience (e.g., managing cold periods and heatwaves), and suitability for the residential environment.